Epidemiology and Aetiology Major health problem – 300 million carriers Incubation 1 - 4 mths Parenteral transmission – sexual, IV, perinatal 0.5% of UK population are carriers, but this is as much as 10-15% in some countries in the developing world. in some far eastern countries, 1/3 of people are carriers. E.g. in Yemen ¼ of the population have hep B PresentationAcute Hepatitis B
Gonorrhoea (aka the clap) Nisseria Gonorrhoae (aka Gonococcus, GC)is a Gram-negative intracellular diplococcus. It only infects humans, and likes moist areas, typically infecting the genitourinary tracts, retum, pharynx and conjunctiva. It is particularly intolerant to a dry environment.
Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT) The most common bacterial STI. Like gonorrhoea, this can also be spread vertically, and can result in aconjunctivitis in the neonate. However, unlike gonorrhoea, the conjunctivitis is not a medical emergency, and will noly very rarely result in blindness. Epidemiology It is the most common bacterial STD
THE most common cause of pathological vaginal discharge. Can be caused by an overgrowth of many types of bacteria, usually anaerobes. There is alos often a decrease in the number of lactobacilli. Not sexually transmitted Epidemiology Affects 10% of women in the UK, but most cases are asymptomatic Presentation
Polycystic ovary syndrome (aka hyperandrogen Chronic Anovulation) is a very common cause of amenorrhoea and oligomenorrhoea. It is important as it is associated with excessive andorgen secretion and insulin resistance. Typical patients Hyperandrogenism
Epidemiology The most common genital tract cancer Every year, about 4500 women in the UK develop endometrial cancer The majority (93%) of cases are diagnosed in women aged over 50 years Geographical variation exists - North American: Chinese ratio of about 7: 1 Pathology
Three types of operation: Abdominal – TAH – Total Abdominal Hysterectomy This is the most common form of surgery performed in the UK Vaginal – VH – Vaginal HyesterectomyLaparoscopic – LAVH – Laparoscopically assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy