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This is a diagram I created to summarise the immune response, complete with friendly, loveable cartoon immune cells designed in an attempt to make what can be a very complicated and confusing subject seem a little less threatening. The students I taught the subject to loved the "cute" summary format and found immunology to be a much more approachable revision topic as a result!
Since this image has been so popular with all you lovely people, I have also written a comprehensive article on the immune response - complete with lots of illustrations - which is available here on Geeky Medics: http://geekymedics.com/2014/07/02/immune-response/
Enjoy and good luck!
I was approached by Meducation to become a resident blogger, and was initially surprised by the invitation as - I must explain upfront - I am not a clinician of any type! I'm one of those project managers. So when considering where to begin to write my first blog post I decided to focus on the use of technology in medical education.
Then when I began writing my first post I was reminded of the complexities of such a topic! And I realised that this is not something that can be covered in one post.
So this is where I thought I would start:
Technology is changing our lives at an ever increasing rate, and it is influencing the way we do a range of tasks from the use of technology in the hospital to the use of technology in education, notwithstanding all other aspects of our lives and the way we communicate. We are educating children in schools at the moment who will have careers and jobs that don't even exist at the moment, the rate of change is exponential. But with this consistent churn of information, communication and technological developments, how do you keep up? Where do you start? As a teacher, as a learner.
I wanted to concentrate this post on considering some of the challenges which can be encountered when working in medical education. One of the pivotal issues is probably resistance. Resistance has a negative connotation and I use it cautiously. Resistance can be in many forms and can arise for a number of reasons.
Technology brings about change, and inherently change can make people nervous. And with change you often encounter resistance; resistance to change, resistance to adapt, resistance to engage - the fear of the unknown. With an ever evolving world, where technology is infiltrating the way we live, work and learn, it is natural that this will influence the way we deliver education, including medical education.
Technology is so fast moving it can considerable time to become familiar with new mediums of developing educational resources, by which time often new iterations and new technologies have arrived.
However, for those providing subject matter expertise for educational resources it is essential that they under the medium through this will be delivered. And for learners, which we all are, it is important to understand how you learn and how technology can help you do this.
With the changes to the NHS and developments in education technology do people find some comfort in being able to both deliver and receive education in a traditional manner?
This poses a unique and very interesting challenge to answer for those involved in medical education, in trying to meet the demands of those seeking information and education in new and interesting ways with those who enjoy traditional classroom based education - all from both the point of view of the 'teacher' and the 'learner'.
How to we satisfy the appetite of those seeking cutting edge education with the demand for traditional classroom learning? Is it possible to meet the needs of all?
Being Black in America is dangerous. We hear about the deaths by police shooting or white supremacist - and by gun violence generally, which disproportionately plagues Black communities. But we hardly ever discuss the persistent discrepancy in life expectancy between white and black. There are many ways to attack the latter through healthcare policy and practice -- if we are willing. That remains the question for America 48 years after King was killed.
The quality of learning achieved in university depends on many factors, with approaches to learning and studying being only one important aspect. To optimize learning among our university students, it is necessary to understand the learning processes that make high-quality learning outcomes possible. How students learn and study has been described extensively encompassing many overlapping aspects, using different terms: eg. learning approaches, learning styles, learning orientations, learning strategies and study skills. Approaches to learning and studying can be described in simple terms as ‘how students tackle their everyday academic tasks’. There are three main approaches to learning and studying eg. deep approach, surface apathetic approach and strategic approach. Identifying learning approaches and taking necessary actions to promote the more desirable learning approaches is necessary to achieve optimum learning. This presentation describes learning approaches and how to optimize them.
When you think of the term 'bacteria', it immediately conjures up an image of a faceless, ruthless enemy-one that requires your poor body to maintain constant vigilance, fighting the good fight forever and always. And should you happen to lose the battle, well, the after effects are always messy. But what some people might not know is that bacteria are our silent saviours as well. These 'good' bacteria are known as probiotics, where 'pro' means 'for' and 'bios' is 'life'.
The WHO defines probiotics as "live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health bene?t on the host". Discovered by the Russian scientist Metchnikoff in the 20th century; simply put, probiotics are micro-organisms such as bacteria or yeast, which improve the health of an individual. Our bodies contain more than 500 different species of bacteria which serve to maintain our health by keeping harmful pathogens in check, supporting the immune system and helping in digestion and absorption of nutrients.
From the very first breath you take, you are exposed to probiotics. How so? As an infant passes through it's mother's birth canal, it receives a good dose of healthy bacteria, which in turn serve to populate it's own gastro-intestinal tract. However, unfortunately, as we go through life, our exposure to overly processed foods, anti-bacterial products, sterilized and pasteurized food etc, might mean that in our zeal to have everything sanitary and hygienic, we might be depriving ourselves of the beneficial effects of such microorganisms.
For any health care provider, the focus should not only be on eradicating disease but improving overall health as well. Here, probiotic containing foods and supplements play an important role as they not only combat diseases but also confer better health in general. Self dosing yourself with bacteria might sound a little bizarre at first-after all, we take antibiotics to fight bacteria. But let's not forget that long before probiotics became a viable medical option, our grandparents (and their parents before them) advocated the intake of yoghurt drinks (lassi). The fermented milk acts as an instant probiotic delivery system to the body!
Although they are still being studied, probiotics may help several specific illnesses, studies show. They have proven useful in treating childhood diarrheas as well as antibiotic associated diarrhea. Clinical trial results are mixed, but several small studies suggest that certain probiotics may help maintain remission of ulcerative colitis and prevent relapse of Crohn’s disease and the recurrence of pouchitis (a complication of surgery during treatment of ulcerative colitis). They may also help to maintain a healthy urogenital system, preventing problems such as vaginitis and UTIs.
Like all things, probiotics may have their disadvantages too. They are considered dangerous for people with impaired immune systems and one must take care to ensure that the correct strain of bacteria related to their required health benefit is present in such supplements. But when all is said and done and all the pros and cons of probiotics are weighed; stand back ladies and gentlemen, there's a new superhero in town, and what's more-it's here to stay!