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35

Normal Labor and Delivery: Practice Essentials, Definition, Stages of Labor and Epidemiology

Labor is a physiologic process during which the fetus, membranes, umbilical cord, and placenta are expelled from the uterus. Stages of labor Obstetricians have divided labor into 3 stages that delineate milestones in a continuous process.  
emedicine.medscape.com
over 5 years ago
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6

Methods for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening, the ability of the cervix to open in response to spontaneous uterine contractions | Cochrane

In this review, researchers from The Cochrane Collaboration examined a comparison between the Bishop score and any other method for checking pre-induction cervical ripening in women admitted for induction of labour. The Bishop score is the traditional method of determining the readiness of the cervix to open (dilate) before labour induction. It also assesses the position, softening and shortening of the cervix, and the location of the presenting part of the baby. After searching for relevant trials up to 31 March 2015, we included two randomised controlled trials that recruited 234 pregnant women.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago
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0
13

Antibiotic prophylaxis during the second and third trimester in pregnancy to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes and morbidity | Cochrane

Antibiotics are administered to pregnant women during the second and third trimester of pregnancy (before labour) to prevent bacteria in the vagina and cervix affecting the pregnancy. Infection by some infectious organisms in a woman’s genital tract can cause health problems for the mother and her baby, and has been associated with preterm births. This review of eight randomised trials involved approximately 4300 women in their second or third trimester. We found that antibiotics did not reduce the risk of preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes (one trial, low quality of evidence), or the risk of preterm birth (six trials, high quality of evidence). Preterm delivery was reduced in pregnant women who had a previous preterm birth and an imbalance of bacteria in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis) during the current pregnancy. There was no reduction in preterm delivery in pregnant women with previous preterm birth without a bacterial imbalance during the current pregnancy (two trials). Postpartum endometritis, or infection of the uterus following birth, was reduced overall (three trials, moderate quality of evidence), as well as in a trial of high-risk women who had a previous preterm birth (one trial, moderate quality of evidence). No reduction in neonatal illness was observed. Outcomes of interest were available in trials with high losses to follow-up. We could not estimate the side effects of antibiotics since side effects were rare; however, antibiotics may still have serious side effects on women and their babies.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago
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118

Molecular mechanisms within fetal lungs initiate labor

Researchers have identified two proteins in a fetus' lungs responsible for initiating the labor process, providing potential new targets for preventing preterm birth. They discovered that the proteins SRC-1 and SRC-2 activate genes inside the fetus' lungs near full term, leading to an inflammatory response in the mother's uterus that initiates labor.  
sciencedaily.com
over 5 years ago
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49

Fallopian Tube Disorders: Overview, Salpingitis, Salpingitis Isthmica Nodosa

The human oviduct, also known as the fallopian tube, is an essential component of the normal reproductive process. The tube, which connects the peritoneal space to the endometrial cavity, captures the egg after ovulation and transports the sperm from the uterus to the fertilization site in the ampulla (the middle portion of the tube).  
emedicine.medscape.com
over 5 years ago
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1

Methods to reduce pain with insertion of intrauterine contraception | Cochrane

Fear of pain with insertion of intrauterine contraception (IUC) may cause women to avoid using this very effective method of birth control. IUC includes devices with copper and with the hormone levonorgestrel. Researchers have studied many ways of reducing pain with IUC insertion. These include drugs that lessen uterine cramps, soften and open the cervix (uterus opening), or numb the cervix.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago
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1
5

Measuring the height of the uterus from the symphysis pubis (SFH) in pregnancy for detecting problems with fetal growth | Cochrane

Monitoring the baby’s growth is important during pregnancy. If growth is poor then this should be identified as soon as possible, because delay might result in the baby’s death. The simplest way to determine growth is to examine the baby by palpating the mother's by abdomen and estimate the size of her womb compared with a landmark such as the navel (umbilicus). An alternative method is to use a tape measure to take a measurement, known as the symphysial fundal height (SFH) measurement, from the mother’s pubic bone (symphysis pubis) to the top of the womb. The measurement is then applied to the gestation by a simple rule of thumb and compared with normal growth.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago
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4
75

Uterus Transplant: First US Clinical Trial Begins

The first clinical trial of uterus transplantation in the United States has begun at Cleveland Clinic in Ohio.  
medscape.com
over 5 years ago