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49

Fallopian Tube Disorders: Overview, Salpingitis, Salpingitis Isthmica Nodosa

The human oviduct, also known as the fallopian tube, is an essential component of the normal reproductive process. The tube, which connects the peritoneal space to the endometrial cavity, captures the egg after ovulation and transports the sperm from the uterus to the fertilization site in the ampulla (the middle portion of the tube).  
emedicine.medscape.com
almost 6 years ago
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Measuring the height of the uterus from the symphysis pubis (SFH) in pregnancy for detecting problems with fetal growth | Cochrane

Monitoring the baby’s growth is important during pregnancy. If growth is poor then this should be identified as soon as possible, because delay might result in the baby’s death. The simplest way to determine growth is to examine the baby by palpating the mother's by abdomen and estimate the size of her womb compared with a landmark such as the navel (umbilicus). An alternative method is to use a tape measure to take a measurement, known as the symphysial fundal height (SFH) measurement, from the mother’s pubic bone (symphysis pubis) to the top of the womb. The measurement is then applied to the gestation by a simple rule of thumb and compared with normal growth.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago
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47

UOTW #41 – Ultrasound of the Week

A 24 y/o female presents with c/o vaginal spotting and severe abdominal pain. LMP 2 months ago. BP 82/40. You lie the patient supine and are unable to visualize the uterus, but obtain this clip instead. What’s your next step?  
ultrasoundoftheweek.com
almost 6 years ago
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14

Doppler ultrasound of fetal blood vessels in normal pregnancies | Cochrane

One of the main aims of routine antenatal care is to identify babies who are not thriving in the womb. It is possible that medical interventions might improve outcomes for these babies, if they can be identified. Doppler ultrasound uses sound waves to detect the movement of blood in vessels. It is used in pregnancy to study blood circulation in the baby, uterus and placenta. Using it in high-risk pregnancies, where there is concern about the baby's condition, shows benefits. However, its value as a screening tool in all pregnancies needs to be assessed as there is a possibility of unnecessary interventions and adverse effects. The review of trials of routine Doppler ultrasound of the baby’s vessels in pregnancy identified five studies involving more than 14,000 women and babies. The studies were not of high quality and were all undertaken in the 1990s. There were no improvements identified for either the baby or the mother, though more data would be needed to prove whether it is effective or not for improving outcomes.  
cochrane.org
almost 6 years ago
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13

Preparing the cervix with different ripening agents before operative hysteroscopy | Cochrane

Are cervical ripening agents effective for dilating the cervix before operative hysteroscopy and do they reduce the risk of complications during the surgery?  
cochrane.org
almost 6 years ago
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6

Methods for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening, the ability of the cervix to open in response to spontaneous uterine contractions | Cochrane

In this review, researchers from The Cochrane Collaboration examined a comparison between the Bishop score and any other method for checking pre-induction cervical ripening in women admitted for induction of labour. The Bishop score is the traditional method of determining the readiness of the cervix to open (dilate) before labour induction. It also assesses the position, softening and shortening of the cervix, and the location of the presenting part of the baby. After searching for relevant trials up to 31 March 2015, we included two randomised controlled trials that recruited 234 pregnant women.  
cochrane.org
almost 6 years ago
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13

Antibiotic prophylaxis during the second and third trimester in pregnancy to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes and morbidity | Cochrane

Antibiotics are administered to pregnant women during the second and third trimester of pregnancy (before labour) to prevent bacteria in the vagina and cervix affecting the pregnancy. Infection by some infectious organisms in a woman’s genital tract can cause health problems for the mother and her baby, and has been associated with preterm births. This review of eight randomised trials involved approximately 4300 women in their second or third trimester. We found that antibiotics did not reduce the risk of preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes (one trial, low quality of evidence), or the risk of preterm birth (six trials, high quality of evidence). Preterm delivery was reduced in pregnant women who had a previous preterm birth and an imbalance of bacteria in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis) during the current pregnancy. There was no reduction in preterm delivery in pregnant women with previous preterm birth without a bacterial imbalance during the current pregnancy (two trials). Postpartum endometritis, or infection of the uterus following birth, was reduced overall (three trials, moderate quality of evidence), as well as in a trial of high-risk women who had a previous preterm birth (one trial, moderate quality of evidence). No reduction in neonatal illness was observed. Outcomes of interest were available in trials with high losses to follow-up. We could not estimate the side effects of antibiotics since side effects were rare; however, antibiotics may still have serious side effects on women and their babies.  
cochrane.org
almost 6 years ago
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1

Methods to reduce pain with insertion of intrauterine contraception | Cochrane

Fear of pain with insertion of intrauterine contraception (IUC) may cause women to avoid using this very effective method of birth control. IUC includes devices with copper and with the hormone levonorgestrel. Researchers have studied many ways of reducing pain with IUC insertion. These include drugs that lessen uterine cramps, soften and open the cervix (uterus opening), or numb the cervix.  
cochrane.org
over 5 years ago