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Listen to the lecture: The spinal cord stimulator service

<embed type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" allowscriptaccess="always" src="http://www.archive.org/flow/flowplayer.commercial-3.0.5.swf" w3c="true" flashvars="'config=" height="24" width="350"></embed><br /><br /><div style="width: 425px; text-align: left;" id="__ss_3044302"><a style="margin: 12px 0pt 3px; font-family: Helvetica,Arial,Sans-serif; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-size: 14px; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal; display: block; text-decoration: underline;" href="http://www.slideshare.net/epicyclops/spinal-cord-stimulation-dr-andrew-crockett" title="Spinal Cord Stimulation Dr Andrew Crockett">Spinal Cord Stimulation Dr Andrew Crockett</a><object style="margin: 0px;" height="355" width="425"><param name="movie" value="http://static.slidesharecdn.com/swf/ssplayer2.swf?doc=spinalcordstimulation-drandrewcrockett-100201034256-phpapp02&amp;stripped_title=spinal-cord-stimulation-dr-andrew-crockett"><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"><param name="allowScriptAccess" value="always"><embed src="http://static.slidesharecdn.com/swf/ssplayer2.swf?doc=spinalcordstimulation-drandrewcrockett-100201034256-phpapp02&amp;stripped_title=spinal-cord-stimulation-dr-andrew-crockett" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" height="355" width="425"></embed></object><div style="font-size: 11px; font-family: tahoma,arial; height: 26px; padding-top: 2px;">View more <a style="text-decoration: underline;" href="http://www.slideshare.net/">presentations</a> from <a style="text-decoration: underline;" href="http://www.slideshare.net/epicyclops">epicyclops</a>.</div></div><div class="blogger-post-footer"><img width='1' height='1' src='https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/tracker/13562045-8796535646163562467?l=wspain.blogspot.com' alt='' /></div>  
West of Scotland Pain Group lectures
over 8 years ago
29747
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Cerebellar Neuroanatomy

Introduction Examination of the cranial nerves allows one to "view" the brainstem all the way from its rostral to caudal extent. The brainstem can be divided into three levels, the midbrain, the pons and the medulla. The cranial nerves for each of these are: 2 for the midbrain (CN 3 & 4), 4 for the pons (CN 5-8), and 4 for the medulla (CN 9-12). It is important to remember that cranial nerves never cross (except for one exception, the 4th CN) and clinical findings are always on the same side as the cranial nerve involved. Cranial nerve findings when combined with long tract findings (corticospinal and somatosensory) are powerful for localizing lesions in the brainstem. Cranial Nerve 1 Olfaction is the only sensory modality with direct access to cerebral cortex without going through the thalamus. The olfactory tracts project mainly to the uncus of the temporal lobes. Cranial Nerve 2 This cranial nerve has important localizing value because of its "x" axis course from the eye to the occipital cortex. The pattern of a visual field deficit indicates whether an anatomical lesion is pre- or postchiasmal, optic tract, optic radiation or calcarine cortex. Cranial Nerve 3 and 4 These cranial nerves give us a view of the midbrain. The 3rd nerve in particular can give important anatomical localization because it exits the midbrain just medial to the cerebral peduncle. The 3rd nerve controls eye adduction (medial rectus), elevation (superior rectus), depression (inferior rectus), elevation of the eyelid (levator palpebrae superioris), and parasympathetics for the pupil. The 4th CN supplies the superior oblique muscle, which is important to looking down and in (towards the midline). Pontine Level Cranial nerves 5, 6, 7, and 8 are located in the pons and give us a view of this level of the brainstem. Cranial Nerve 6 This cranial nerve innervates the lateral rectus for eye abduction. Remember that cranial nerves 3, 4 and 6 must work in concert for conjugate eye movements; if they don't then diplopia (double vision) results. The medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) connects the 6th nerve nucleus to the 3rd nerve nucleus for conjugate movement. Major Oculomotor Gaze Systems Eye movements are controlled by 4 major oculomotor gaze systems, which are tested for on the neurological exam. They are briefly outlined here: Saccadic (frontal gaze center to PPRF (paramedian pontine reticular formation) for rapid eye movements to bring new objects being viewed on to the fovea. Smooth Pursuit (parietal-occipital gaze center via cerebellar and vestibular pathways) for eye movements to keep a moving image centered on the fovea. Vestibulo-ocular (vestibular input) keeps image steady on fovea during head movements. Vergence (optic pathways to oculomotor nuclei) to keep image on fovea predominantly when the viewed object is moved near (near triad- convergence, accommodation and pupillary constriction) Cranial Nerve 5 The entry zone for this cranial nerve is at the mid pons with the motor and main sensory (discriminatory touch) nucleus located at the same level. The axons for the descending tract of the 5th nerve (pain and temperature) descend to the level of the upper cervical spinal cord before they synapse with neurons of the nucleus of the descending tract of the 5th nerve. Second order neurons then cross over and ascend to the VPM of the thalamus. Cranial Nerve 7 This cranial nerve has a motor component for muscles of facial expression (and, don't forget, the strapedius muscle which is important for the acoustic reflex), parasympathetics for tear and salivary glands, and sensory for taste (anterior two-thirds of the tongue). Central (upper motor neuron-UMN) versus Peripheral (lower motor neuron-LMN) 7th nerve weakness- with a peripheral 7th nerve lesion all of the muscles ipsilateral to the affected nerve will be weak whereas with a "central 7th ", only the muscles of the lower half of the face contralateral to the lesion will be weak because the portion of the 7th nerve nucleus that supplies the upper face receives bilateral corticobulbar (UMN) input. Cranial Nerve 8 This nerve is a sensory nerve with two divisions- acoustic and vestibular. The acoustic division is tested by checking auditory acuity and with the Rinne and Weber tests. The vestibular division of this nerve is important for balance. Clinically it be tested with the oculocephalic reflex (Doll's eye maneuver) and oculovestibular reflex (ice water calorics). Medullary Level Cranial nerves 9,10,11, and 12 are located in the medulla and have localizing value for lesions in this most caudal part of the brainstem. Cranial nerves 9 and 10 These two nerves are clinically lumped together. Motor wise, they innervate pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles. Their sensory component is sensation for the pharynx and taste for the posterior one-third of the tongue. Cranial Nerve 11 This nerve is a motor nerve for the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. The UMN control for the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) is an exception to the rule of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere controls the movement of the contralateral side of the body. Because of the crossing then recrossing of the corticobulbar tracts at the high cervical level, the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere controls the ipsilateral SCM muscle. This makes sense as far as coordinating head movement with body movement if you think about it (remember that the SCM turns the head to the opposite side). So if I want to work with the left side of my body I would want to turn my head to the left so the right SCM would be activated. Cranial Nerve 12 The last of the cranial nerves, CN 12 supplies motor innervation for the tongue. Traps A 6th nerve palsy may be a "false localizing sign". The reason for this is that it has the longest intracranial route of the cranial nerves, therefore it is the most susceptible to pressure that can occur with any cause of increased intracranial pressure.  
Neurologic Exam
almost 8 years ago
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374

The spinal cord

Notes on the spinal cord and the neuro anatomy  
Philip Welsby
over 7 years ago
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A Brief Introduction to Neuro Anatomy: The Major Cord (part1)

The Major Cord: A very brief introduction to the anatomy of the spinal cord with points of clinical relevance.  
Lucas Brammar
about 6 years ago
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2
73

Spinal ependymoma - radiology video tutorial (MRI)

A quick review of spinal cord ependymoma MRI appearances.  
Radiopaedia
over 5 years ago
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3
86

Spinal cord and vertebral column

3D views of different segments of spinal cord and vertebral column.  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 5 years ago
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4
165

THE SPINAL CORD & SPINAL TRACTS; PART 1 by Professor Fink

In Part 1 of Professor Fink's 2-Part Series on the Spinal Cord, he reviews the anatomy of the Spinal Cord and the functional organization at each segmental level. Professor Fink describes the horizontal flow of sensory information into the Spinal Cord and the flow of motor commands out of the Spinal Cord. Reference is made to Gray Matter, White Matter, Spinal Nerves, Dorsal Root Ganglion, Ventral Root, Commissures, decussation, Somatic Reflexes, Dorsal (Posterior) Gray Horn, Ventral (Anterior) Gray Horn, Lateral Gray Horn. Check-out professor fink's web-site or additional resources in Biology, Anatomy, Physiology & Pharmacology: www.professorfink.com Lecture Outlines by Professor Fink can be purchased from the WLAC Bookstore at: http://onlinestore.wlac.edu/fink.asp  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 5 years ago
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9
205

Spinal Pathways 1 - Spinal Cord Anatomy and Organisation

http://www.handwrittentutorials.com - This video is the foundation for a series of 4 tutorials discussing the Dorsal Column - Medial Lemniscus Pathway, the Spinothalamic tract and the Corticospinal Tract. This video is an overview of the anatomy and organisation of the fasciculi involved and the major features of a spinal cord cross section. For more entirely FREE tutorials and accompanying PDFs visit http://www.handwrittentutorials.com  
HelpHippo.com
almost 5 years ago
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3
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Spinal Pathways 4 - Corticospinal Tract

http://www.handwrittentutorials.com - The fourth instalment in the Spinal Pathways series. This video looks at the course of the corticospinal tract, from the Precentral gyrus to the peripheral muscles. For more entirely FREE tutorials and accompanying PDFs visit http://www.handwrittentutorials.com  
HelpHippo.com
almost 5 years ago
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3
96

Spinal Pathways 3 - Spinothalamic Tract

http://www.handwrittentutorials.com - This is the third video in a series on the major pathways in the spinal cord. This video looks at the Spinothalamic Tract from the periphery to the cortex. For more entirely FREE tutorials and accompanying PDFs visit http://www.handwrittentutorials.com  
HelpHippo.com
almost 5 years ago
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7
233

Introduction to CNS Anatomy

http://www.handwrittentutorials.com - This tutorial is an introduction to the anatomy of the Central Nervous System (CNS). It explores the gross anatomy of brain, the brainstem and the spinal cord. For more entirely FREE tutorials and accompanying PDFs visit http://www.handwrittentutorials.com  
HelpHippo.com
almost 5 years ago
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15
137

Neurology - Spinal Cord Introduction

https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 5 years ago
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4
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Reflexes, Classifications, and Functions

Integrated functions of spinal cord, reflex action, and their classification.  
Ashok Solanki
almost 5 years ago
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5
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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 13 Spinal Cord: Anatomy and Physiology Help

Anatomy and Physiology, help, spinal cord, neural tissue, pia mater, dermatomes, dura mater, arachnoid mater, spinal anatomy, cauda equina, filum terminale, ganglia, dorsal root, ventral root, nervous system.  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 5 years ago
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4
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Spinal Cord Model

Dixon discusses Enlargements, cord, pia, dura, mater, denticulate ligaments, 8 spinal nerves, cauda equina, sympathetic chain ganglion, paravetrebral ganglia, plexuses and nerve.  
Nicole Chalmers
almost 5 years ago
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spinal-cord-anatomy-and-syndromes

Spinal Cord Anatomy and Syndromes  
LITFL
almost 5 years ago
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2
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Blood supply to the Spinal Cord • Cardiovascular, Nervous System • AnatomyZone

Learn about the blood supply to the spinal cord in this 3D video anatomy tutorial.  
anatomyzone.com
over 4 years ago
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1
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Spinal Cord Compression

Physiology and anatomy The spinal cord runs from C1 (junction with the medulla), to about L1, where it becomes the cauda equina. Note that it terminates lower down in children – the spinal cord cannot grow as well as the rest of the body! The spinal cord gets its blood supply mainly from the vertebral arteries.    
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 4 years ago
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1
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Motor Neuron Disease (MND)

Relatively common disease, seen worldwide. There is degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord, affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. MND never causes sensory problems   MND is a general term used to describe several types of motor neurone degeneration. Some clinicians (especially in the USA) do not use to the term MND, and instead refer to the individual types of degeneration, e.g.:  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
over 4 years ago
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8
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Spinal Pathways 2 - Dorsal Column - Medial Lemniscus Pathway

http://www.handwrittentutorials.com - This is the second video in a series on the major pathways in the spinal cord. This video looks at the dorsal column - ...  
YouTube
over 4 years ago