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Cerebral palsy | McMaster Pathophysiology Review

The premature neonatal brain is susceptible to two main pathologies: intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Although both pathologies increase the risk of CP, PVL is more closely related to CP and is the leading cause in preterm infants. The term PVL describes white matter in the periventricular region that is underdeveloped or damaged (“leukomalacia”). Both IVH and PVL cause CP because the corticospinal tracts, composed of descending motor axons, course through the periventricular region.  
pathophys.org
about 3 years ago
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Diagnostic Approach to Tinnitus - American Family Physician

Tinnitus is a common disorder with many possible causes. Most cases of tinnitus are subjective, but occasionally the tinnitus can be heard by an examiner. Otologic problems, especially hearing loss, are the most common causes of subjective tinnitus. Common causes of conductive hearing loss include external ear infection, cerumen impaction, and middle ear effusion. Sensorineural hearing loss may be caused by exposure to excessive loud noise, presbycusis, ototoxic medications, or Meniere's disease. Unilateral hearing loss plus tinnitus should increase suspicion for acoustic neuroma. Subjective tinnitus also may be caused by neurologic, metabolic, or psychogenic disorders. Objective tinnitus usually is caused by vascular abnormalities of the carotid artery or jugular venous systems. Initial evaluation of tinnitus should include a thorough history, head and neck examination, and audiometric testing to identify an underlying etiology. Unilateral or pulsatile tinnitus may be caused by more serious pathology and typically merits specialized audiometric testing and radiologic studies. In patients who are discomforted by tinnitus and have no remediable cause, auditory masking may provide some relief.  
aafp.org
about 3 years ago
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Cadaver Biopsy Piques Student Interest in Pathology

An anatomy program could help first-year medical students understand pathology and might attract more undergrads to the specialty, which has more residence positions go unfilled than almost any other.  
medscape.com
about 3 years ago
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American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) 2015 Annual Meeting

American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) 2015 Annual Meeting: Read clinically focused news coverage of key developments from ASCP 2015.  
medscape.com
about 3 years ago
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Critical Care

The diagnosis of patients presenting to the emergency department with acute heart failure (AHF) is challenging due to the similarity of AHF symptoms to other conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia. Additionally, because AHF is most common in an older population, the presentation of coexistent pathologies further increases the challenge of making an accurate diagnosis and selecting the most appropriate treatment. Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of AHF can result in worse outcomes and higher healthcare costs. Rapid initiation of treatment is thus necessary for optimal disease management. Early treatment decisions for patients with AHF can be guided by risk-stratification models based on initial clinical data, including blood pressure, levels of troponin, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, B-type natriuretic peptide, and ultrasound. In this review, we discuss methods for differentiating high-risk and low-risk patients and provide guidance on how treatment decisions can be informed by risk-level assessment. Through the use of these approaches, emergency physicians can play an important role in improving patient management, preventing unnecessary hospitalizations, and lowering healthcare costs. This review differs from others published recently on the topic of treating AHF by providing a detailed examination of the clinical utility of diagnostic tools for the differentiation of dyspneic patients such as bedside ultrasound, hemodynamic changes, and interrogation of implantable cardiac devices. In addition, our clinical guidance on considerations for initial pharmacologic therapy in the undifferentiated patient is provided. It is crucial for emergency physicians to achieve an early diagnosis of AHF and initiate therapy in order to reduce morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.  
ccforum.com
about 3 years ago
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Predictors of Clinically Significant Shoulder Pathology

Could certain factors predict clinically significant shoulder pain in the ED, thus negating the need for radiography in these patients?  
medscape.com
almost 3 years ago
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Shifting the Treatment Paradigm for Multiple Sclerosis: Advances in Pathophysiology and Emergence of Novel Disease-Modifying Therapies CME

Our knowledge about the pathophysiology and treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has evolved rapidly over the past several years. Greater understanding of the roles of both T and B cells in immune function and MS pathology has allowed a shift in the treatment paradigm and new opportunities for targeted management. Some newer and investigative disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for MS act to deplete T- and/or B-cell populations to modulate or “reset” immune function. Healthcare professionals who treat patients with MS need a clearer understanding about how these mechanisms fit into current management protocols. Patients with MS face increasingly complex decisions and need information about newer therapeutic options and how these approaches may be applicable to their individual disease presentation. In this activity, expert faculty will discuss recent paradigm shifts in MS, including the role of T and B cells in MS pathophysiology, mechanisms of action of newer and novel DMTs, applicability of these mechanisms to progressive forms of MS, and strategies for educating patients about therapeutic options.  
medscape.org
almost 3 years ago
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Pathology: Cellular Injury and Adaptation

A module with questions and answers integrating histology, pathology, and clinical reasoning based on the topic of cellular injury and adaptation. I made this for a first year medical school review session.  
Lorenzo Sewanan
almost 3 years ago
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PerkinElmer Vectra 3 Automated Quantitative Pathology System with 7 Color Tracking |

PerkinElmer is releasing a new advanced automated, high-throughput quantitative pathology system that is able to image seven different colors per slide. Th  
medgadget.com
almost 3 years ago
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Heart Failure (Definition) – Cardiology | Medical Education Videos

Watch this medical education video about heart failures and prepare for your next cardiology exam! You can also watch this video and many other free lectures...  
youtube.com
almost 3 years ago
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“Gunslinger’s gait”: a new cause of unilaterally reduced arm swing

Objective To postulate a new possible cause of a unilaterally reduced arm swing in addition to the known medical conditions such as shoulder pathology, Erb’s palsy, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease.  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 3 years ago
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Zombie infections: epidemiology, treatment, and prevention

Tara C Smith summarises the epidemiology and pathology of zombie infections and calls for research and funding to prevent a zombie apocalypse  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 3 years ago
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“Gunslinger’s gait”: a new cause of unilaterally reduced arm swing

Objective To postulate a new possible cause of a unilaterally reduced arm swing in addition to the known medical conditions such as shoulder pathology, Erb’s palsy, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease.  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 3 years ago
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Concussion: doctor who took on the might of American football hits the big screen

The pathologist who made the link between American football and brain disease is the subject of a controversial new Hollywood film. Anne Gulland reports  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 3 years ago
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Concussion: doctor who took on the might of American football hits the big screen

The pathologist who made the link between American football and brain disease is the subject of a controversial new Hollywood film. Anne Gulland reports  
feeds.bmj.com
almost 3 years ago
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Sleep Fragmentation Linked to Cerebrovascular Pathology

Greater sleep fragmentation -- defined as interruption of sustained sleep by repeated awakenings -- is associated with arteriosclerosis and subcortical infarcts at autopsy.  
medscape.com
almost 3 years ago
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Occult Trauma: The Eyes Do Not See What the Mind Does Not Know - emdocs

Pearls and pitfalls in managing the trauma patient and finding occult pathology: a little knowledge goes a long way  
emdocs.net
almost 3 years ago