This PA Chest X-Ray demonstrates a left sided pleural effusion. In this condition fluid collects between the parietal and visceral pleura and appears as a shadowy fluid level on the X-Ray with obliteration of the costophrenic angles. If you were to examine this patient they might be in respiratory distress from reduced oxygen uptake (so have low sats, high resp rate, possible cyanosis and accessory muscle useage) - they may have reduced chest expansion on the affected side and it would be stony dull to percussion. Fluid transmits sound poorly so breath sounds would be decreased as would vocal resonance/fremitus. Someone with consolidation may have very similar clinical findings but the underlying area of lung is almost solid due to pus from the infective process - as sounds travel well through solids they would have increased vocal fremitus which is how you can clinically differentiate between the two conditions. Clinical examination and understanding of conditions is paramount to practice effective medicine. Before you recieved this X-Ray you should be able to diagnose the condition and use the X-Ray to confirm your suspicions.
almost 8 years ago
Learn to: Locate midclavicular line, sternal angle, trachea, clavicle, sternoclavicular joint, xiphoid process of sternum, and costal margin. Count the ribs and intercostal spaces. Describe the surfaces markings of the heart: borders, apex, location of the valves, auscultatory areas. Trace the surface markings of the lung and pleura. Trace the surface markings of the lung fissures and lobes. Locate the position of the costodiaphragmatic and costomediastinal recesses of the pleura.
over 3 years ago
Pneumothorax is defined as the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity (ie, the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura of the lung). The clinical results are dependent on the degree of collapse of the lung on the affected side.
almost 2 years ago
A discussion of how to identify, localize, and describe pneumonia, as well as pulmonary nodules and lung cavities. Signs of a pulmonary embolism are reviewed...
over 3 years ago
An explanation of alveolar vs. interstitial opacities, including cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and the 3 types of interstitial patterns (r...
over 3 years ago
Following the implantation of the blastocyst into the endometrium of uterus, the embryo begins another important embryological process called gastrulation. Gastrulation is the formation of the three distinct germ layers - the ectoderm, the mesoderm and the endoderm. The ectoderm is the outermost layer of the developing embryo and it consists of cells that eventually give rise to the integumentary system (the outer skin, nails and hair) as well as the nervous system (central and peripheral system). The mesoderm is the middle layer of the developing embryo and it consists of cells that eventually give rise to the musculoskeletal system (bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle), cardiovascular system (the heart and blood vessels), excretory system (kidneys) and reproductive system (gonads). The endoderm is the innermost layer of the developing embryo and it gives rise to the epithelial layer of the digestive tract, lungs, pancreas, bladder, liver as well as the thyroid gland, parathyroid gland and thymus.
over 2 years ago
This video is part of a playlist of short videos which are intended to combine multiple choice questions' answering experience with an improved understanding.
over 1 year ago