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1
37

Laryngitis

Clinicians should re-visit the diagnosis and ensure endoscopic examination has been performed if symptoms persist or red flag symptoms develop  
bmj.com
almost 5 years ago
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1
64

ENT - Nose

The online lecture series for medical students. On demand streaming video lectures. www.mdcrack.tv Owner: MD CRACK  
YouTube
almost 5 years ago
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7
216

Otitis Media Tutorial

This is a review of the diagnosis and treatment of this condition for medical students.  
YouTube
over 4 years ago
Www.bmj
2
115

Meniere’s disease

Meniere’s disease is a rare cause of new onset vertigo compared with more common conditions such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo or vestibular migraine  
bmj.com
over 4 years ago
Www.bmj
1
28

An abnormality at the hepatic flexure

A 92 year old woman presented to the emergency department after collapsing at home. She recalled standing from her chair, feeling lightheaded, and then collapsing. She had felt generally weak for more than a year, with weight loss of 56 lb (25.2 kg) but no change in bowel habit, dysphagia, or gastrointestinal bleeding. Her medical history included hypertension, hypothyroidism, and anaemia (which was currently being investigated by her general practitioner). Among other drugs, she was taking lisinopril, bendroflumethiazide, and levothyroxine. Her son had died at 60 years of age from large bowel obstruction and perforation secondary to colon cancer.  
bmj.com
over 4 years ago
11
0
31

Why does acute otitis media cause ear drum perforation, whereas otitis media with effusion doesn't?

The textbooks say there is no perforation in OME, but why? If there is fluid build-up then surely there is a risk of perforation?  
Carly Bisset
over 6 years ago
2
1
140

What is the type of tympanometry in adhesive otitis media?

What is the type of tympanometry in adhesive otitis media? Is it As or c, and why please?  
Ahmed Iraqi
over 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 184etvn?1444773944
3
132

Aspergillus and Human Health

Many may be familiar with aspergillosis as the infecting agent in acute cases where the patient is severely immunocompromised - but there is more to this fungus' repertoire. There are rare cases where the patient's immune system is overwhelmed by a large inhalation of spores e.g. after gardening, but these are insignificant in terms of total numbers effected. The following are far more common:- Aspergillus and other fungi are increasingly identified as the active agent in sinusitis - if you have cases that don't respond to antibiotics this is worth thinking about. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA & aspergilloma) is an infection of immunocompetent people, causing respiratory difficulty, coughing and haemoptysis. The UK NHS has a specialist centre for these patients In Manchester (National Aspergillosis Centre (NAC)). NAC has particular expertise and extensive facilities for the diagnosis of CPA, ABPA, SAFS and use of systemic antifungal drugs. Allergic infection (Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis - ABPA and chronic sinusitis) is thought to be heavily underdiagnosed and undertreated. ABPA is particularly common in Asthma, Cystic Fibrosis patients and those with bronchiectasis. There is estimated to be 25 000 cases in the UK alone. Many (50%) of the most severe asthma cases are sensitive to fungi (SAFS) - in particular Aspergillus. These tend to be the most unstable cases that don't respond to antibiotics and several studies have been published that show giving an antifungal helps reduce the use of steroids for these patients. Last but not least - Tuberculosis is on the rise in the UK and the rest of the world. It is estimated that 2% of cases progress to CPA and should be treated using an antifungal - this is usually not done until considerable time has passed and much damage has been done. In total it is estimated that many millions of people across the world suffer from aspergillus - ABPA - 5 million, Tb - 400 000 per year and Asthma (SAFS - 1 - 4 million cases in EU & US). Sinusitis cases may number many tens of millions worldwide. So - the next time you assume aspergillus infections and aspergillosis are rare and confined to those who are profoundly immunocompromised - think again! If you have a patient who has increasingly severe respiratory symptoms, doesn't respond to multiple courses of antibiotics then give aspergillus a thought. Browse around these articles for further information Aspergillus Website Treatment Section. NB For a broader look at the prevalence of fungal diseases worldwide the new charity Leading International Fungal Education (LIFE) website is worth looking at.  
Graham Atherton
over 6 years ago
Foo20151013 2023 7owyf5?1444773963
3
147

Benchmarking Outpatient Referral Rates

Introduction GPs for a little while have been asked to compare each other’s outpatient referrals rates. The idea is that this peer to peer open review will help us understand each others referral patterns. For some reason and due to a natural competitive nature of human behaviour, I think we have these peer to peer figures put to us to try to get us to refer less into hospital outpatients. It’s always hard to benchmark GP surgeries but outpatient referral benchmarking is particularly poor for several reasons It's Very Difficult to Normalise Surgeries Surgeries have different mortalities morbidities ages and other confounding factors that it becomes very hard to create an algorithm to create a weighting factor to properly compare one surgery against another. There Are Several Reasons For The Referral I’ll go into more detail on this point later but there are several reasons why doctors refer patients into hospital which can range from: doctors knowing a lot about the condition and picking up subtle symptoms and signs lesser experienced doctors would have ignored; all the way to not knowing about the condition and needing some advice from an expert in the condition. We Need To Look At The Bigger Picture The biggest killer to our budget is non-elective admissions and it’s the one area where patient, commissioner and doctor converge. Patients want to keep out of hospital, it’s cheaper for the NHS and Doctors don’t like the lack of continuity when patients go in. For me I see every admission to hospital as a fail. Of course it’s more complex than this and it might be totally appropriate but if we work on this concept backwards, it will help us more. Likewise if we try to reduce outpatient referrals because we are pressurised to, they may end up in hospitalisation and cost the NHS £10,000s rather than £100s as an outpatient. We need to look at the bigger picture and refer especially if we believe that referrals will lead to less hospitalisation of patients further down the line. To put things into perspective 2 symptoms patients present which I take very seriously are palpitations in the elderly and breathlessness. Both symptoms are very real and normally lead to undiagnosed conditions which if we don’t tackle and diagnose early enough will cause patients to deteriorate and end up in hospital. Education, Education, Education When I first went into commissioning as a lead in 2006 I had this idea of getting to the bottom of why GPs refer patients to outpatients. The idea being if we knew why, we would know how to best tackle specialities. I asked my GPs to record which speciality to refer to and why they referred over a 7 month period. The reason for admission was complex but we divided them up into these categories: 2nd care input required for management of the condition. We know about the condition but have drawn the line with what we can do in primary care. An example of this is when we’ve done a 24 hour tape and found a patient has 2sec pauses and needs a pace maker. 2nd care input required for diagnosis. We think this patient has these symptoms which are related to this condition but don’t really know about the diagnosis and need help with this. An example of this is when a patient presents with diarrhoea to a gastroenterologist There could be several reasons for this and we need help from the gastroenterologist to confirm the diagnosis via a colonscopy and ogd etc. Management Advice. We know what the patient has but need help with managing the condition. For example uncontrolled heart failure or recurrent sinusitis. Consultant to Consultant Referral. As advised between consultants. Patient Choice. Sometimes the patient just wants to see the hospital doctor. The results are enclosed here in Excel and displayed below. Please click on the graph thumbnail below. Reasons For Referrals Firstly a few disclaimers and thoughts. These figures were before any GPSI ENT, Dermatology or Musculosketal services which probably would have made an impact on the figures. There are a few anomalies which may need further thought eg I’m surprised Rheumatology for 2nd input for diagnosis is so low, as frequently I have patients with high ESRs and CRPs which I need advise on diagnoses. Also audiology medicine doesn’t quite look right. The cardiology referral is probably high for management advise due to help on ECG interpretation although this is an assumption. This is just a 7 month period from a subset of 8-9 GPs. Although we were careful to explain each category and it’s meaning, more work might need to be done to clarify the findings further. In my opinion the one area where GPs need to get grips with is management advice as it’s an admission that I know what the patient has and need help on how to treat them. This graph is listed in order of management advice for this reason. So what do you do to respond to this? The most logical step is to education GPs on the left hand side of this graph and invest in your work force but more and more I see intermediary GPSI services which are the provider arm of a commissioning group led to help intercept referrals to hospital. In favour of the data most of the left hand side of the graph have been converted into a GPSI service at one point. In my area what has happened is that referrals rates have actually gone up into these services with no decline in the outgoing speciality as GPs become dis-empowered and just off load any symptoms which patients have which they would have probably had a higher threshold to refer on if these GPSI services were not available. Having said that GPSI services can have a role in the pathway and I’m not averse to their implementation, we just have to find a better way to use their services. 3 Step Plan As I’m not one to just give problems here are my 3 suggestions to help referrals. To have a more responsive Layered Outpatient Service. Setting up an 18 week target for all outpatients is strange, as symptoms and specialities need to be prioritised. For example I don’t mind waiting 20 weeks for a ENT referral on a condition which is bothering me but not life threatening but need to only have a 3 week turn over if I’m breathless with a sudden reduction in my exercise tolerance. This adds an extra layer of complexity but always in the back of my mind it’s about getting them seen sooner to prevent hospitalisation. Education, education, education It’s ironic that the first budget to be slashed in my area was education. We need to education our GPs to empower them to bring the management advice category down as this is the category which will make the biggest impact to improving health care. In essence we need to focus on working on the left hand side of this graph first. Diagnose Earlier and Refer Appropriately The worst case scenario is when GPs refer patients to the wrong speciality and it can happen frequently as symptoms blur between conditions. This leads to delayed diagnosis, delayed management and you guessed it, increased hospitalisation. The obvious example is whether patients with breathlessness is caused by heart or lung or is psychogenic. As GPs we need to work up patients appropriately and make a best choice based on the evidence in front of us. Peer to peer GP delayed referral letter analysis groups have a place in this process. Conclusion At the end of the day it's about appropriate referrals always, not just a reduction. Indeed for us to get a grip on the NHS Budgets as future Clinical Commissioners, I would expect outpatient referrals to go up at the expense of non-elective, as then you are looking at patients being seen and diagnosed earlier and kept out of hospital.  
Raza Toosy
over 6 years ago
141bd7ffe3b3ed512898cdd22d08791ee5e879ed4060425668804899
2
32

Radical Neck Dissection: (RND) Classification, Indication and Techniques

Crile in 1906 introduced RND and is followed by Martin as a the classical procedure for the management of cervical lymph node metastasis  
Souradeep Dutta
over 4 years ago
Www.bmj
0
18

Meniere’s disease

Meniere’s disease is a rare cause of new onset vertigo compared with more common conditions such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo or vestibular migraine  
feeds.bmj.com
over 4 years ago
Preview
0
14

An abnormality at the hepatic flexure

A 92 year old woman presented to the emergency department after collapsing at home. She recalled standing from her chair, feeling lightheaded, and then collapsing. She had felt generally weak for more than a year, with weight loss of 56 lb (25.2 kg) but no change in bowel habit, dysphagia, or gastrointestinal bleeding. Her medical history included hypertension, hypothyroidism, and anaemia (which was currently being investigated by her general practitioner). Among other drugs, she was taking lisinopril, bendroflumethiazide, and levothyroxine. Her son had died at 60 years of age from large bowel obstruction and perforation secondary to colon cancer.  
feeds.bmj.com
over 4 years ago
Preview
1
43

AAO-HNSF clinical practice guideline: Allergic rhinitis

The American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation addresses quality improvement opportunities in the diagnosis and management of allergic rhinitis in a new...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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0
5

Osteoporosis diagnosis contributes to hearing loss risk

People who have osteoporosis face a 1.76-fold higher risk of developing sudden deafness than those who do not have the bone disease, according to a new study published in the Endocrine...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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0
11

Tonsillectomy in childhood to prevent tonsillitis may reduce the risk for HPV-related tonsil cancer

Undergoing prophylactic childhood tonsillectomy reduced the future risk for tonsil carcinoma diagnosis, according to the results of a study published in Cancer Prevention Research, a...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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0
1

HPV vaccination of adolescent boys may be cost-effective for preventing oropharyngeal cancer

A new study indicates that vaccinating 12-year-old boys against the humanpapilloma virus (HPV) may be a cost-effective strategy for preventing oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer, a cancer that...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
Preview
0
4

Calm acceptance may relieve stress of tinnitus, study finds

A novel approach to tinnitus, or ringing in the ears, a condition striking approximately 50 million Americans, may provide long-term relief, according to a study published in the journal...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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0
14

New model could help identify root cause of swallowing disorder dysphagia

Findings may 'change the landscape' of dysphagia interventionNearly 40 percent of Americans 60 and older are living with a swallowing disorder known as dysphagia.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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0
10

AAO-HNSF updated clinical practice guideline: Adult sinusitis

Experts update best practices for treating the 1 in 8 US adults suffering from sinusitisAn updated clinical practice guideline from the American Academy of...  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago
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0
1

'More than a billion young adults at risk of hearing loss'

A new report from WHO states that 1.1 billion teenagers and young adults aged 12-35 are at risk of hearing loss due to exposure to unsafe levels of recreational noise.  
medicalnewstoday.com
over 4 years ago