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Immune Response Summary Diagram

This is a diagram I created to summarise the immune response, complete with friendly, loveable cartoon immune cells designed in an attempt to make what can be a very complicated and confusing subject seem a little less threatening. The students I taught the subject to loved the "cute" summary format and found immunology to be a much more approachable revision topic as a result! Since this image has been so popular with all you lovely people, I have also written a comprehensive article on the immune response - complete with lots of illustrations - which is available here on Geeky Medics: http://geekymedics.com/2014/07/02/immune-response/ Enjoy and good luck!  
Miss Laura Jayne Watson
over 4 years ago
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A medical mystery for Mother's Day...

I'd like to tell you a curious story. Jane was a 52 year old woman in need of a kidney transplant. Thankfully she had three loving sons who were all very happy to give her one of theirs. So Jane's doctors performed tests to find out which of the three boys would be the best match, but the results surprised everyone. In the words of Jeremy Kyle, the DNA test showed that Jane was not the mother of two of the boys... Hang on, said Jane, child birth is not something you easily forget. They're definitely mine. And she was right. It turns out Jane was a chimera. Chimerism is the existence of two genetically different cell lines in one organism. This can arise for a number of reasons- it can be iatrogenic, like when someone has an organ transplant, or it can be naturally occurring. In Jane's case, it began in her mum's womb, with two eggs that had been fertilised by different sperm creating two embryos. Ordinarily, they would develop into two non-identical twins. However in Jane's case the two balls of cells fused early in development creating one person with both cell lines. Thus when doctors did the first tissue typing tests on Jane, just by chance they had only sampled the 'yellow' cell line which was responsible for one of her sons. When they went back again they found the 'pink' cell line which had given rise to the other two boys. This particular type of human chimerism is thought to be pretty rare- there are only 30 case reports in the literature. (Though remarkably both House and CSI's Gil Grissom have encountered cases.) What happens far more frequently is fetal microchimerism- which occurs in pregnant women when cells cross the placenta from baby to mum. This is awesome because we used to think the placenta was this barrier which prevented any cells crossing over. Now we've found both cells and free floating DNA cross the placenta, and that the cells can hang around for decades after the baby was born. Why? As is often the case in medicine we're not sure but one theory is that the fetal cells might have healing properties for mum. In pregnant mice who've had a heart attack, fetal cells can travel to the mum's heart where the develop into new heart muscle to repair the damage. Whilst we're still in the early stages of understanding why this happens, we already have a practical application. In the United States today, a pregnant woman can have a blood test which isn't looking for abnormalities in her DNA but in that of her fetus. The DNA test isn't conclusive enough to be used to diagnose genetic conditions, but it is a good screening test for certain trisomies including Down's syndrome. Now, we started with a curious tale, so lets close with a curious fact, and one that's appropriate for Mother's Day: This exchange of cells across the placenta is a two way process. So you may well have some of your mum's cells rushing through your veins right now. In my case they're probably the ones that tell me to put on sensible shoes and put that boy down... (FYI: This is a story I originally posted on my own blog)  
Dr Catherine Carver
about 4 years ago
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A Tour of the Cell

Learn the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and how the organelles work together in a similar fashion.  
Nicole Chalmers
about 3 years ago
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Animation of Initiation of Atherosclerosis - Macrophage Activation 1

This animation shows a simplified version of the macrophage's role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. In an atherosclerotic-prone blood vessel, macrophages invade the subendothelial space. Oxidised Low-Density Lipoproteins (oxLDL) present within the vessel wall will bind to scavenger receptors on the macrophage's surface, such as CD36. This will activate the macrophage, and it will phagocytose the oxLDL. As this process continues, the macrophage increases in size and forms a Foam Cell, which is too large to pass between the endothelial cells back into the lumen. Therefore, the foam cells remain in the subendothelial space and are the main cells present within an atherosclerotic plaque. *** Done for Student Selected Component (SSC), University of Aberdeen. Year 2. 2011. Made in Adobe Photoshop CS2 and Adobe Imageready.  
Victoria Lee
almost 6 years ago
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What is Insulin? Appreciating The Remarkable Pancreas

Energy! is what the pancreas is all about! It’s job is to make sure that each and every cell in the body has the energy it needs to function. The pancreas is…  
slideshare.net
over 1 year ago
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Immunology Map III - T cell development II

http://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan  
Nicole Chalmers
about 3 years ago
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Diabetes

• Type 1 diabetes – a primary deficiency of insulin, β- cell destruction leads to failure of insulin secretion. May be due to an autoimmune reaction against th…  
Stephen McAleer
almost 4 years ago
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Animation of Initiation of Atherosclerosis - Macrophage Activation 2

This animation shows a simplified version of the macrophage's role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. In an atherosclerotic-prone blood vessel, macrophages invade the subendothelial space. Oxidised Low-Density Lipoproteins (oxLDL) present within the vessel wall will bind to scavenger receptors on the macrophage's surface, such as CD36. This will activate the macrophage, and it will phagocytose the oxLDL. As this process continues, the macrophage increases in size and forms a Foam Cell, which is too large to pass between the endothelial cells back into the lumen. Therefore, the foam cells remain in the subendothelial space and are the main cells present within an atherosclerotic plaque. *** Done for Student Selected Component (SSC), University of Aberdeen. Year 2. 2011. Made in Adobe Photoshop CS2 and Adobe Imageready.  
Victoria Lee
almost 6 years ago
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Excitable Cells: Revision Notes

Revision notes from First Year at The University of Manchester Faculty of Life Sciences.  
Daniel Sapier
over 5 years ago
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Neurology - Neuron

https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan  
Nicole Chalmers
about 3 years ago
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Easy Anemia Classification: Introduction for Medical Pathology Students

A simplified introduction to anemia pathology, including iron deficiency, lead poisoning, vitamins, DNA. We classify anemias according to red blood cell size; environmental or genetic causes. Please SUBSCRIBE for new videos: More cool stuff coming as we get more users. Pathology mnemonic tutorial playlist at: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLIPkjUW-piR2HEbxFVzJ-jIH0TxcBrc_K BTW: I say "Gap6" instead of "G6PD" because there is a "gap" in the RBC membrane where a "bite" was taken out. (Mnemonic for abnormal cell morphology for this enzyme deficiency.) G6PD shows "High Loss" during a crisis, (like after eating fava beans...) but most of the time, your (asymptomatic) RBCs are just born with defective glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Visit: http://helphippo.com for archived videos, organized by topic/school year.  
HelpHippo.com
about 3 years ago
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White cells and their disorders

My "questions and answer" sheets I use to revise. These sheets are much like the look, cover, copy sheets I used as a young child learning to spell and, although a primitive idea, they help me ensure I learn the topic.  
Peter Hewitt
almost 6 years ago
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Ebola Virus Disease - MOA Animation - Scientific Animations

We all hear about Ebola being a deadly disease, and indeed it is. The rather agressive virus has already claimed about 10,000 lives. But what really makes Ebola such a deadly virus? Let’s try and understand how Ebola really attacks the cells within the body which in turn leads to multiple organ failure and then exigency. This 3D Medical Animation illustrates the Mechanism of Action of the Ebola Virus.  
scientificanimations.com
over 1 year ago
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The Medical Book Warzone... Which book is best?

As the days are slowly getting longer, and spring looms in the near future, it can only be the deep inhale of the medical student ready to embrace the months of revision that lies ahead. Books are dusted off the shelves and Gray's anatomy wrenched open with an immense sigh of distain. But which book should we be pulling off the shelves? If you're anything like me then you're a medical book hoarder. Now let me "Google define" this geeky lexis lingo - a person who collects medical books (lots of medical books) and believes by having the book they will automatically do better!... I wish with a deep sigh! So when I do actually open the page of one, as they are usually thrown across the bed-room floor always closed, it is important to know which one really is the best to choose?!? These are all the crazy thoughts of the medical book hoarder, however, there is some sanity amongst the madness. That is to say, when you find a really good medical book and get into the topic you start to learn stuff thick and fast, and before you know it you’ll be drawing out neuronal pathways and cardiac myocyte action potentials. Yet, the trick is not picking up the shiniest and most expensive book, oh no, otherwise we would all be walking around with the 130 something pounds gray’s anatomy atlas. The trick is to pick a book that speaks to you, and one in which you can get your head around – It’s as if the books each have their own personality. Here are a list of books that I would highly recommend: Tortora – Principles of anatomy and physiology Tortora is a fantastic book for year 1 medical students, it is the only book I found that truly bridges the gap between A levels and medical students without going off on a ridiculous and confusing tangent. While it lacks subtle detail, it is impressive in how simplified it can make topics appear, and really helps build a foundation to anatomy and physiology knowledge The whole book is easy to follow and numerous pretty pictures and diagrams, which make learning a whole lot easier. Tortora scores a whopping 8/10 by the medical book hoarder Sherwood – From cells to systems Sherwood is the marmite of the medical book field, you either love this book or your hate it. For me, Sherwood used to be my bible in year two. It goes into intricate physiological detail in every area of the body. It has great explanations and really pushes your learning to a greater level than tortora in year one. The book doesn’t just regurgitate facts it really explores concepts. However: I cannot be bias, and I must say that I know a number of people who hate this book in every sense of the word. A lot of people think there is too much block text without distractions such as pictures or tables. They think the text is very waffly, not getting straight to the point and sometimes discusses very advanced concepts that do not appear relevant The truth be told, if you want to study from Sherwood you need to a very good attention span and be prepared to put in the long-hours of work so it’s not for everyone. Nonetheless, if you manage to put the effort in, you will reap the rewards! Sherwood scores a fair 5-6/10 by the medical book hoarder Moore & Dalley – Clinical anatomy At first glance Moore & Dalley can be an absolute mindfield with an array of pastel colours that all amalgamate into one! It’s also full of table after table of muscle and blood vessels with complicated diagrams mixed throughout. This is not a medical book for the faint hearted, and if your foundation of anatomy is a little shakey you’ll fall further down the rabbit hole than Alice ever did. That being said, for those who have mastered the simplistic anatomy of tortora and spent hours pondering anatomy flash cards, this may be the book for you. Moore & Dalley does not skimp on the detail and thus if you’re willing to learn the ins and out of the muscles of the neck then look no further. Its sections are actually broken down nicely into superficial and deep structures and then into muscles, vessels, nerves and lymph, with big sections on organs. This is a book for any budding surgeon! Moore & Dalley scores a 6/10 by the medical book hoarder Macleod’s clinical examination Clinical examination is something that involves practical skills and seeing patients, using your hands to manipulate the body in ways you never realised you could. Many people will argue that the day of the examination book is over, and it’s all about learning while on the job and leaving the theory on the book shelf. I would like to oppose this theory, with claims that a little understanding of theory can hugely improve your clinical practice. Macleod’s takes you through basic history and examination skills within each of the main specialties, discussing examination sequences and giving detailed explanations surrounding examination findings. It is a book that you can truly relate to what you have seen or what you will see on the wards. My personal opinion is that preparation is the key, and macleod’s is the ultimate book to give you that added confidence become you tackle clinical medicine on the wards Macleod’s clinical examination scores a 7/10 by the medical book hoarder Oxford textbook of clinical pathology When it comes to learning pathology there are a whole host of medical books on the market from underwood to robbins. Each book has its own price range and delves into varying degrees of complexity. Robbins is expensive and a complex of mix of cellular biology and pathophysiological mechanisms. Underwood is cheap, but lacking in certain areas and quite difficult to understand certain topics. The Oxford textbook of clinical pathology trumps them all. The book is fantastic for any second year or third year attempting to learn pathology and classify disease. It is the only book that I have found that neatly categories diseases in a way in which you can follow, helping you to understand complications of certain diseases, while providing you with an insight into pathology. After reading this book you’ll be sure to be able to classify all the glomerulonephritis’s while having at least some hang of the pink and purples of the histological slide. Oxford textbook of clinical pathology scores a 8/10 by the medical book hoarder Medical Pharmacology at glance Pharmacology is the arch nemesis of the Peninsula student (well maybe if we discount anatomy!!), hours of time is spent avoiding the topic followed immediately by hours of complaining we are never taught any of it. Truth be told, we are taught pharmacology, it just comes in drips and drabs. By the time we’ve learnt the whole of the clotting cascade and the intrinsic mechanisms of the P450 pathway, were back on to ICE’ing the hell out of patients and forget what we learned in less than a day. Medical pharmacology at a glance however, is the saviour of the day. I am not usually a fan of the at a glance books. I find that they are just a book of facts in a completely random order that don’t really help unless you’re an expert in the subject. The pharmacology version is different: It goes into just the right amount of detail without throwing you off the cliff with discussion about bioavailability and complex half-life curves relating to titration and renal function. This book has the essential drugs, it has the essential facts, and it is the essential length, meaning you don’t have to spend ours reading just to learn a few facts! In my opinion, this is one of those books that deserves the mantel piece! Medical Pharmacology at a glance scores a whopping 9/10 by the medical book hoarder. Anatomy colouring book This is the last book in our discussion, but by far the greatest. After the passing comments about this book by my housemates, limited to the sluggish boy description of “it’s terrible” or “its S**t”, I feel I need to hold my own and defend this books corner. If your description of a good book is one which is engaging, interesting, fun, interaction, and actually useful to your medical learning then this book has it all. While it may be a colouring book and allows your autistic side to run wild, the book actually covers a lot of in depth anatomy with some superb pictures that would rival any of the big anatomical textbooks. There is knowledge I have gained from this book that I still reel off during the question time onslaught of surgery. Without a doubt my one piece of advice to all 1st and 2nd years would be BUY THIS BOOK and you will not regret it! Anatomy colouring book scores a tremendous 10/10 by the medical book hoarder Let the inner GEEK run free and get buying:)!!  
Benjamin Norton
about 4 years ago
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Haematology - Red Blood Cells

https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Support me: http://www.patreon.com/armando Instagram: http://instagram.com/armandohasudungan Twitter: https://twit...  
YouTube
about 2 years ago
700x466x800px hematopoiesis simple svg.png.pagespeed.ic.jhvzg3stth
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Haematopoiesis - Blood Cell Formation

All blood cells develop from haemocytoblasts The process is called haematopoiesis (sometimes just haemopoiesis) Haemocytoblasts are also known as pluripotential stem cells. These cells can replicate themselves as well as differentiate into other cells, thus providing the constant supply of blood cells. The turnover of cells is very quick:  
almostadoctor.com - free medical student revision notes
almost 3 years ago
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Overview of the Immune System

This video gives a great overview of the cells and functions of the immune system in response to a pathogen.  
youtube.com
over 1 year ago
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MIT discovers the location of memories: Individual neurons | ExtremeTech

y triggering a single neuron, the researchers were able to force the subject to recall a specific memory. By removing ...  
extremetech.com
over 1 year ago
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HIV Life Cycle

How HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase.  
youtube.com
about 1 year ago
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Brains, Bodies, and Behavior

The nervous system is composed of more than 100 billion cells known as neurons . A neuron is a cell in the nervous system whose function it is to receive and transmit information . As you can see in Figure3.2, “Components of the Neuron” , neurons are made up of three major parts: a cell body, or soma , which contains the nucleus of the cell and keeps the cell alive ; a branching treelike fiber known as the dendrite , which collects information from other cells and sends the information to the soma ; and a long, segmented fiber known as the axon , which transmits information away from the cell body toward other neurons or to the muscles and glands .  
peoi.org
over 1 year ago